Sunday, March 7, 2010

Orhan 1



Orhan Bey, was the son of Osman Bey (leader of Ottoman Turks and founder of Ottoman Dynasty).

Reigned from 1326 (death of his father Osman Bey) to 1360 until his death.

Mother was Mal Hatun, daughter of Abdulaziz Bey.
Borned in 1281, Söğüt
Died in 1360, Bursa



Tughra of Orhan Gazi



Chronology

  • 1326Osman Bey's death. Orhan Gazi's accession to the throne. The conquest of Bursa

  • 1326 Birth of Orhan Gazi’s son Murad. Orhan Gazi's brother, Alaeddin Bey appointed as vizier by Orhan Gazi. Conquest of Aydos ve Samandıra. Bursa became center of the state. The first Ottoman printing money on behalf of Osman Gazi.

  • 1328 Vizier Alaeddin Pasha implementing "The First Ottoman Laws". "Yaya" army the first millitary organization of state set up by Vizier Alaeddin Pasha and Candarlı Halil Pasha. Maltepe Victory. Conquest of İznik for the second and final time.

  • 1329 First millitary organization set up by Orhan Gazi.

  • 1331 Appointment of Prince Süleyman Pasha as Vizier. Establishment of the first Ottoman madrasa in İznik

  • 1333 Conquest of Gemlik

  • 1334 Building of a mosque and charitable next to Iznik Yenişehir Door

  • 1335 Establishment of the first architectural work, mosques and madrasas in Bursa

  • 1336 Karesi Seigniory participates in state land. Appointment of Çandarlı Halil Pasha's to Bursa as judge

  • 1337 Conquest İzmit and Koyunhisar Castles.

  • 1341 Signing of the first peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire. Orhan Gazi's mariage with Kantakuzen's daughter

  • 1346 Byzantine alliance.

  • 1347 Orhan Gazi's meeting with Kantakuzen in Üsküdar

  • 1351 Victory against the Serbs and Bulgarians. Süleyman Pasha's transition to Rumeli to help Byzantine and Çimpi Castle’s taken headquarters.

  • 1352 Ottomans make concessions to Genoese for free trading in Ottoman territories. Conquest of Üsküdar, Kadıköy and Marmara Islands. First Ottoman Money(Akçe). Conquest of Thrace and Gallipoli

  • 1354 Ankara's first occupation.

  • 1359 Death of The Conquer of Rumeli Suleyman Pasha

  • 1360 Death of Orhan Gazi. Sultan I. Murad's accession to the throne



Türbe of Orhan Gazi in Bursa

Osman 1 : Founder of Ottoman Dynasty




Osman Bey, was the leader of Ottoman Turks and ruled the Ottoman Empire. The Empire, named after him.

In 1299, Orman Bey declared the independence from Seljuk Turks.

Reigned from 1299 to 1326 until his death.
His father was Ertuğrul Gazi and mother was Hayme Hatun
Borned in 1258, Söğüt
Died in 1326


Chronology

  • 1258 Founder of Ottoman Dynasty Orhan Gazi borned.

  • 1281 Father of Orhan Gazi, Ertuğrul Gazi died.

  • 1284 Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat sent the edict that indicates Osman Bey as Söğüt Margrave. Osman's son Orhan Bey's birth.

  • 1285 The first victory of Osman Bey. "Kuluca Hisar (Close to İnegol) Conquest"

  • 1286 Karacahisar and İnegöl alliances, against Osman Bey

  • 1288 The Conquest of Karacahisar

  • 1289 Eskişehir and İnönü also given to Osman Bey by Alaeddin Keykubat

  • 1292 Flock movement to North Sakarya

  • 1298 The Conquest of Bilecik, Yarhisar and İnegöl Castles, captured Nilüfer Hatun becomes wife of Orhan Gazi.

  • 1299 The end of the reign of the Seljuks. Establishment of the Ottoman Empire

  • 1300 Conquest of Yondhisar and Yenişehir Castles. Yenişehir becomes the center of state.

  • 1301 Osman's Koyunhisar victory. Kirmasti, Mihalıç and Ulubad taken from Byzantines.

  • 1302 Conquest of Köprühisar.

  • 1303 Iznik taken into the blockade. Conquest of Marmarıcık Fortress.

  • 1306 Osman Gazi’s Dinboz victory, conquest of Kestel, Kete and Ulubat castles. The first military contract between the Ottomans and foreigners.

  • 1307 The first siege of Nicaea and Yalova invasion.

  • 1308 The conquest of İmralı Island, reaching to Marmara Sea.

  • 1313 Harmankaya Tekfur Köse Mihal, enters Osman Gazi's suite. Conquest of Akhisar, Geyve, Lüblüce, Lefke, Hisarcık, Tekfurpınarı, Yenikale, Karagöz and Yanıkçahisar castles.

  • 1314 Beginning of the siege of Bursa

  • 1316 Prince Süleyman's birth

  • 1317 The Conquest of Karatekin, Ebesuyu, Karacebeş, Tuzpazarı, Kapucuk and Keresteci castles.

  • 1320 Gazi Osman's son Orhan Gazi to the attorney.

  • 1321 Conquest of Mudanya. Gemlik invasion. The first Ottoman invasion to Trakya Region

  • 1323 Conquest of Akyazı.

  • 1324 Conquest of Karamürsel

  • 1325 Conquest of Orhaneli. Conquest of Bolu, Kandıra, Ermenipazarı and Devehisarı Castles.

  • 1326Death of Osman Gazi, Orhan Gazi's accession to the throne



Last testament
In directing his son to continue the administrative policies set forth by Sheik Edebali, Osman stated:
“Son! Be careful about the religious issues before all other duties. The religious precepts build a strong state. Do not give religious duties to careless, faithless and sinful men or to dissipated, indifferent or inexperienced people. And also do not leave the state administrations to such people. Because the one without fear of God the Creator, has no fear of the created. One who commits a great sin and continues to sin can not be loyal. Scholars, virtuous men, artists and literary men are the power of the state structure. Treat them with kindness and honour. Build close relationship when you hear about a virtuous man and give wealth and grant him...Put order the political and religious duties. Take lesson from me so I came to these places as a weak leader and I reached to the help of God although I did not deserve. You follow my way and protect Din-i Muhammedi and the believers and also your followers. Respect the right of God and his servants. Do not hesitate to advise your successors in this way. Depend on God's help in the esteem of justice and fairness, to remove the cruelty, attempts in every duty. Protect your public from enemy's invasion and from the cruelty. Do not behave any person in an unsuitable way with unfairness. Gratify the public and save all of their sake."

Türbe of Osman Gazi in Bursa

Monday, March 1, 2010

Ottoman Empire



The sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty ruled over a vast transcontinental empire from 1299 to 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned from Hungary in the north to Somalia in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Administered at first from the city of Bursa in Anatolia, the empire's capital was moved to Edirne in 1366 and then to Constantinople (currently known as Istanbul) in 1453 following its capture from the Byzantine Empire. The Ottoman Empire's early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend; nevertheless, most modern scholars agree that the empire came into existence around 1299 and that its first ruler was Osman I, khan (leader) of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks. The Ottoman Dynasty he founded was to endure for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans. The Ottoman Empire disappeared as a result of the defeat of the Central Powers with whom it had allied itself during World War I. The partitioning of the empire by the victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence led to the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey.